On The Etymology of the Names Astaraand Astarabad

Dr. Vugar Sultanzade,

Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus

 

The article deals with the origin of the wordsAstara and Astarabad(now Gorgan), that are the names of the towns located at the southwestern and southeastern corners of Caspian Sea, respectively. The etymology of the toponymAstara is generally explained by the geographical location of the city. Many researchers argues that Astara means ‘lowland’ because of the Old Turkic word ast ‘low’. Some argue that the etymology of the name Astara relates to the tribe As. According to the third opinion, Astara is a Talish name, etymologically consisting of the words h(osto) ‘plain; smooth’ and ro ‘road’. As for the etymology of the name Astarabad, “one tradition connects it with Yazīd and says that he founded it on the site of the village of Astarak (other popular etymologies connect the town’s name with the Persian word setāra (star) or astar(mule)” (Bosworth, Blair). All above-mentioned etymologies are disputable. To our opinion, the etymology of these related toponyms of Caspian regionis connected with the goddess known under names Ishtar (Babylonian mythology), Astarta/ Astarte (Greek), Astara (Persian) and Astar, Ishdar, Istaru (other languages). In ancient times, the cult of this goddess was very popular in the mentioned region. The paper explains the reasons why this etymology is convincing.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Geocriticism: Reading Literature in Space

Dr. Manfred Malzahn,

United Arab Emirates University, UAE

 

Among recent currents in the field of literary studies, geocriticism has emerged asbeing probably the most promising, arguably the most accommodating, and—paradoxically—the most traditional of innovations. This paper will seek to illuminate the nature and the potential of a critical approach that continues previous and that challenges contemporary critical theories and practices. The argument will be supported by examples drawn largely, if not exclusively from Scottish literature and culture, used in an attempt to illustrate the praticularinterrelatedness between natural environment, built environment, and community that has shaped and is shaping the multiple selves of Scotland and its people.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Non-verbal Signals in Qura'nic Discourse

Dr. Muayyad Omran Chiad,

University of Kerbala, Iraq

 

Non-verbal Signals refer to the movements when human beings use to communicate with each other without speech or writing. They are important in communication as face-to-face conversation if not take the limelight from it. However, more research is necessary to confirm this point. This paper is an attempt to discusses the non-verbal signals by analysing, characterizing them and then exploring how it manifests itself in the Holy Qura'n.The paper shows that the Quranic discourse is abundant with verbal Signals which are useful to understand the speaker's inclination to a great degree. They are considered important in the Qura'nic discourse, therefore Almighty God enriches the verbal message to make it more persuasive and understandable for the addressees. 

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

The Effects of Planning Time Condition and Task Type on Metacognitive Processes and Quantity of Iranian EFL Learners’ Task-Based Writing

Dr. Seyyed Mohammad Alavi (Tehran University, Iran) & Maryam Salarifar (Alborz University, Iran)

 

This paper investigates the effect of planning time condition (i.e., careful online planning, pressured online planning, and pre-task planning) and task type (i.e., information-exchange, and decision-making task) on temporal frequency of metacognitive processes (i.e., generating new ideas, elaborating new ideas, organizing new ideas, thinking of the writing structure, and thinking of language aspects of the task) and quantity of language production of EFL learners’ writing. Sixty MA students in Alborz University in Qazvin carried out two writing tasks. They were randomly assigned to three planning time conditions. While the participants in careful and pressured online planning condition had no time for planning, a limited amount of planning time was dedicated for pre-task planning group. The frequency of metacognitive processes was calculated based on the items selected on the retrospective questionnaire and quantity of production was based on the total number of words produced in the allocated time. Results indicated that planning time condition and task type significantly affect “generating new ideas”. Performing the information-exchange task, participants generated more new ideas in careful online planning condition. Concerning quantity, it was indicated that, although not considerably, more language was produced while the participants were writing in pre-task planning condition. The results imply that generation of new ideas as a cognitive process that leads to good writing, Ong (2013), is highly under the influence of planning time condition and task type, so the study suggests a closer examination of other factors (e.g. individual differences) concerning metacognitive processes in task-based writing.

 

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

The Effect of English Shadowing on EFL Adult Language Learners’ Supra-Segmental Acquisition

Jen-Yu Pai & Dr. Teng-lung Peng,

National Yunlin University of Science & Technology, Taiwan

 

While the relationship between the shadowing practice and listening acquisition in the field of second language learning has been widely probed, the effects of the shadowing practice on language learners’ supra-segmental acquisition is seldom paid attention in Taiwan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the shadowing practice on EFL adult language learners’ supra-segmental acquisition through experimenting with a group of 39 adult participants, who were pursuing their bachelor’s or master’s degree in a technological university in central Taiwan. The data collected include the perception questionnaire, the pre- and post- tests, and in-depth individual interviews. Based on the quantitative data (questionnaire and pre- /post-tests) analyzed, the research findings suggest that after the shadowing practice, the participants indeed became more aware of their English speaking ability and proficiency, especially in terms of sentence stress and sentence linking. In conclusion, the participants made improvement in four evaluated aspects -- word stress, sentence stress, word linking, and sentence linking. In addition, based on the researcher’s in-depth interviews with 10 participants, the researcher offered some suggestions for both teachers and language learners who might be interested in the instruction and learning of the shadowing practice in the future.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

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