Teacher’s Types of Questions in Inclusive Classroom: The Case of Mute Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Najme Pourjafarian, Seyyed Ali Hosseini & Dr. Seed Mehrpour,

Shiraz University, Iran

 

The aim of this study is to investigate the types of questions adults asked to children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive classrooms and whether child’s characteristics (e.g. age) have any effects on the types of questions that adults asked during center-time. Voice recording of non-verbal children which ranged between 4 to 11 with autism spectrum disorder were coded based on the question categories adapted from the work of Massey et al.: management, low cognitive challenging, or cognitively challenging. Results indicated that management questions were asked more than less cognitively challenging questions. Cognitively challenging questions were completely missed from the teachers’ speeches in all the classrooms. Children with lower age had a greater likelihood of receiving less cognitively questions than higher age. The findings present a first step in identifying the questions directed at primary schoolers with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive classrooms.

 

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Revisiting the Swedish Wordlist: How Long Should It Be?

Dr. Feda Negesse,

Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

 

The Swadesh wordlist has been used for more than half a century for collecting data in quantitative and descriptive linguistics. This research compares the classification results of the 100 Swadesh wordlist with those of its subsets to determine if reducing the size of the wordlist impacts its effectiveness. In the comparison, the 100, 50 and 40 wordlists were used to compute lexical distances of 29 Cushitic and Semitic languages spoken in Ethiopia and neighbouring countries. Gabmap, a based application, was employed to compute the lexical distances and to divide the languages into related clusters. The study shows that the subsets are not as effective as the 100 wordlists in clustering languages into smaller subgroups but they are equally effective in dividing languages into bigger groups such as subfamilies. It is noted that the subsets may lead to an erroneous classification whereby unrelated languages by chance form a cluster which is not attested by a comparative study. The chance to get a wrong result is higher when the subsets are used to classify languages which are not closely related. Though a further study is still needed to settle the issues around the size of the Swadesh wordlist, this study indicates that the 50 and 40 wordlists cannot be recommended as reliable substitutes for the 100 wordlist under all circumstances.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Proposing an Alternative to Sonority: The Case of English Phonotactics

Dr. Paula Orzechowska,

Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland

 

This talk provides an analysis of initial and final consonant clusters in English. On the basis of empirically observed tendencies of distribution and co-occurrence of distinctive features in segments forming clusters, we propose a set of new phonotactic preferences which govern the word structure in English. These preferences are expressed by a set of parameters that pertain to the following dimensions: complexity, place of articulation, manner of articulation and voice. With help of statistical methods of Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, the proposed parameters are assigned weight, which allows to illustrate that different features play a different role in initial and final clusters in English. This paper advocates the view that phonological features rather than segments as such determine phonotactics in a given language, while statistical methods allow us to determine the ranking of preferences. The analysis reveals the following set of phonotactic preferences established for initial clusters: sonorant C cluster-finally > 1 obstruent C in CC > voiced C cluster-finally > increasing sonority (where '>' means 'stronger than'). For the word-final context, we show that apart from the manner of articulation and voicing features, also the feature of place (coronal C cluster-initially) is relevant.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Persian-Albanian-Balkan Contact Areas: Some Linguistic / Cultural Aspects of the ‘Complementarity Hypothesis’

Dr. Mirushe Hoxha,

University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Macedonia

 

This paper aims to set forth an hypothesis of the complementarity between grammatical forms and cultural schemas of apparently different cultural and linguistic contexts in understanding the phenomena. For this purpose, the research brings together the optative mood of the Albanian language formed by the suffix–fsh, and the symbolism of Darafsh Kaviani. Further comparative analysis of the semanticsof Persian and Albanian words containing the phoneme group fsh, the Kaveh’s Flag, the optative mood itself, and its grammatical form inthe Albanian language (-fsh) entails the core evidence of the hypothesis offered in this paper: namely, that the phoneme group fsh tends to appear as a meaningful pre-Indo-European substrate conserved both literally and metaphorically in the Persian and Albanian culture and/or language. The paper sets the general context of this complementarity by assessing a corpus of Persian words not only in Albanian but also in the Macedonian, Bulgarian, Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian languages, and their phonetic, morphological and semantic modifications comparing to the source, i.e. Persian. The latter comparative analysis is also promotionally offered by this paper, while the rationale of the ‘complementarity hypothesis’ is corroborated by Gregory Bateson’s thesis on the fundamental analogies between different contexts and their ‘relata’.

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

The Effect of Metadiscourse Instruction on the Writing Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

Dr. Mahboubeh Taghizadeh & Shadi Heidarpour,

Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran

 

This study aimed at investigating the impact of metadiscourse instruction, based on the classification proposed by Hyland (2000), on the writing performance of three groups of EFL learners (i.e., pre-intermediate, intermediate, and upper-intermediate). The participants (N=90) were female learners studying English at the Kish English language institute. In this study, two instruments were used. To investigate if the learners had knowledge about the correct application of metadicourse markers in their writing, a pretest of essay writing was administered. The second instrument, the posttest, was also a writing task administered at the end of the four week instruction in order to find if metadiscourse instruction had any impact on the learners' posttest of writing. In order to operationalize the treatment, a handout of writing including instruction on the different categories of metadiscourse elements along with a number of essay samples and cloze tests were offered to the learners. The results of paired samples t-tests revealed that instruction on metadiscourse markers was effective in enhancing the writing score of the experimental groups at the pre-intermediate, intermediate, and upper-intermediate levels. The interaction effect between group and levels of language proficiency was statistically significant. There was a significant main effect for the levels of language proficiency but no significant main effect for the group. The findings revealed that there was a difference in the writing scores of learners at the different proficiency level after receiving instruction on the metadiscourse markers, but the experimental and control groups did not significantly differ in their writing scores.

 

 

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The First International Conference on Current Issues of Languages, Dialects and Linguistics (WWW.LLLD.IR) & The Third National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 2-3 February 2017 , Iran-Ahwaz.

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