Strategies Used by Translators to Translate Metaphors in Hafez Poetry Based On Newmark’s (1988) Model

Marzieh Khedri & Mohammad Reza Falahati Qadimi Fumani

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University & Regional Information Center for Science and Technology, Shiraz

A metaphor is a comparison between two things that replaces the word or name for one object with that of another. Metaphors are commonly used throughout all types of literature, but rarely to the extent that they are used in poetry. The present study aimed to investigate the strategies used in translation of metaphors in Hafezpoem from Persian to English. The sample consisted of 100 metaphors extracted (through whole sampling) from 42 Qazals of Hafiz Diwan which were translated by 3 translators. To analyze the data, Newmark’s (1988) model was used. The findings revealed that ach translator used the six strategies significantly differently. Clarcke and Bicknell used Dead Metaphor strategy most.Shahriari used Stock Metaphor strategy most. The least frequently used strategies were Recent Metaphor (for Clarck), Recent and Original Metaphor (for Bicknell) and Original Metaphor (for Shahriari). In the whole data set, Dead Metaphor was the most frequent, and Recent and Original Metaphor, were the least frequent strategy types observed. The three translators were statistically the same in using each of the six strategies studied. To render most of the metaphors, 2 translators (out of 3) had applied a common strategy. These finding were in line with those reported by Yusefi (2009). English translators and students and teachers of translation could benefit from this study a lot.

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 5-4 February 2016 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Degree of Contextualization on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Reading and Listening Tests Performance

Farzad Jarideh, Dr. Ali Asghar Kargar & Dr. Fatemeh Behjat

 Abadeh Branch, Islamic Azad University

The present study was an attempt to extend our knowledge on the effect of the degree of contextualization on reading and listening comprehension tests. In other words, it was intended to check the performance of the learners providing with high contextualized input compared to those who received low contextualized input. In doing so, thirty six intermediate learners from Sina English Language Institute, participated in this study. Following that, two kinds of reading comprehension tests, more contextualized and less contextualized, and two kinds of listening comprehension tests, more contextualized and less contextualized, were designed. The data collected from the participants were analyzed using t test. Findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the mean score of more contextualized input and less contextualized input in both reading and listening comprehension tests. However, the results of the present study showed that contextualization seemed not to have any differential effect on the reading and listening. It was concluded that tests with a lower degree of contextualization should be designed in order to find any significant differences between mean scores.

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 5-4 February 2016 , Iran-Ahwaz.

EFL Teachers' Attitudes toward and Challenges in Assessment in the Wake of the Communicative Move in English Language Teaching

Karim Rezagah & Dr. Kioumars Razavipour

 Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University & Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

 

English language education in Iran public schools has recently witnessed a shift away from the traditional grammar and reading skills. In the alternative syllabus, importance is accorded to communication skills as well. As expected, assessing students’ achievement changed from a traditional paper and pencil format to one of testing students’ performance in listening, speaking, and writing. This is, however, easier mandated than practiced. The present study was carried out to investigate EFL teachers’ attitudes and challenges in conducting language assessments expected of them based on the new syllabus. To this end, 78 English language teachers, participated in this study by answering a Likert type questionnaire designed by the researchers. Descriptive statistics and group comparison tests revealed that the new syllabus has driven teachers to engage in communicative language testing to a moderate extent. Yet, teachers appeared to be largely unprepared to conduct assessments consistent with the demands of the new syllabus as manifested by their heavy reliance on ready-made test materials produced either by their colleagues or by commercial institutions.

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 5-4 February 2016 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Strategies Used by Translators for Translating Allah’s Names in Holy Quran Based on Van Coillie’s (2006) Model

Farimah Mostafavi & Mohammad Reza Falahati Qadimi Fumani

 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University & Regional Information Center for Science and Technology, Shiraz

 

Translating proper nouns has always been a complicated and critical subject for translators. Like other divine books, the Holy Quran contains lots of nouns especially proper nouns. The present study aimed to investigate the strategies used in translation of proper nouns from Arabic into Persian and English. The sample consisted of 99 Allah’s names (whole sampling), which had been translated by two Persian and two English translators. All items were extracted with the help of an expert with a Ph.D degree in theology. To analyze the data, Van Coillie’s (2006) model was used. The findings revealed that the four translators had used four out of eleven strategies discussed. Saheeh, Makarem and Qomshei had used the strategies differently but Yusuf Ali had used them similarly. Strategies ‘reproduction’ and ‘addition’ were used significantly differently by the translators. Further, English and Iranian translators used these strategies differently. ‘Non translation plus additional explanation’ and ‘replacement of personal name plus additional explanation’ were used by translators in a similar way, and also English and Persian translators used them similarly. ‘Reproduction’ was used by Iranian translators, but never by English ones. Replacement of personal name by a common noun and non-translation plus additional explanation were the most/least frequently used strategy types by translators. These findings were in line with those reported by Farahani (2013). English and Persian translators, students and teachers of translation could benefit from findings in this study.

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 5-4 February 2016 , Iran-Ahwaz.

Contribution of Grammar Knowledge to Literal and Inferential Reading Comprehension

Dr. Puyan Taheri,

Imam Khomeini International University

 

This study is aimed at investigating the contribution of grammar knowledge to literal and inferential comprehension. The performances of PhD applicants to the University of Tehran (N= 7355) in a language proficiency test called the University of Tehran English Proficiency Test (UTEPT) have been investigated in this study. The test was used to measure language ability of participants in general English. In this study, the participants’ grammar knowledge, literal comprehension, and inferential comprehension were measured. To determine the predictive power of grammar knowledge in explaining the performance of participants in literal and inferential reading comprehension, a Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was performed. The results show that both literal and inferential comprehension can be predicted by grammar knowledge. It was also found that grammar knowledge is a better predictor of inferential comprehension than literal comprehension. It can be concluded that grammar knowledge is important in predicting success in both literal and inferential comprehension. This emphasizes the pedagogical role grammar and language skills play in English classes. The results suggest that readingskills and language skills should be integrated, and that students may take advantage of explicit grammar teaching. This emphasis may justify the activities organized in the traditional approaches, the focus of which was on grammar teaching and vocabulary instruction.

The above abstract is part  of the article which was accepted at The Second National Conference on English Studies and Linguistics (WWW.ELTL.IR) , 5-4 February 2016 , Iran-Ahwaz.

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